A technique used for the separation of DNA, RNA or protein molecules by using an electric current applied to a gel matrix. The gel is the medium used to contain, then separate the target molecules. Electrophoresis refers to the use of electricity to move the molecules through the gel matrix. Placing the molecules in wells in the gel and applying an electric current moves the molecules through the matrix at different rates based on their size, charge and/or shape.
A length of DNA that codes for a particular protein or, in certain cases, a functional or structural RNA molecule.
Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS)
A designation that a substance is considered safe by experts under the conditions of its intended use. Examples are CHO and NS0 cell lines that have GRAS status for therapeutic protein production.
Alteration of the genetic material of cells or organisms in order, for example, to make them capable of making new substances or performing new functions.
The process by which oligosaccharide units are added to proteins.