Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds. In DNA, adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T), as does guanine (G) with cytosine (C). In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil (U).
The application of information technology to the field of molecular biology. Bioinformatics entails the creation and advancement of databases, algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems arising from the management and analysis of biological data.
A product derived from a living organism (from animal products or other biological sources) that is used in the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of disease. Examples of biologics include recombinant proteins, allergy shots, vaccines and hematopoietic growth factors.
Biologic License Application
An application filed with the FDA seeking approval to market a novel biologic in the United States. The application contains a description of the trials and results, formulation, dosage, drug shelf life, manufacturing protocols, packaging information, etc.
A substance used as an indicator of a biologic state. It is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacologic response to a specific therapy. Biomarker identification and measurement are regarded as key developments for the future of disease treatment. Biomarkers are also used in drug discovery to determine whether a drug is effective in animal models and at what doses effectiveness is reached.
A synthetic drug produced utilizing certain biotechnology methods.
A device or system for growing cells or tissues in the context of cell culture. The process of fermentation is performed in a bioreactor to grow large volumes of cells for producing specific proteins.
A device that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector component to detect a pathogenic agent.
Technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science and medicine. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.
A physiological mechanism that alters the permeability of brain capillaries so that some substances, such as certain drugs or toxins, are prevented from entering brain tissue, while other substances are allowed to enter freely.